By Ken Lodge
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Extra info for Critical Introduction to Phonetics (Continuum Critical Introductions to Linguistics)
We noted above that palatoalveolars are restricted in their manner of articulation. Because quite a large area of the tongue is used, it is difficult to release a stop mechanism cleanly. For this reason palatoalveolars are usually fricatives or affricates, as in English [J 3 tj d3]. If a nasal stop precedes one of these sounds, it, too, will be palatoalveolar. In the conventions of the IPA there are no separate symbols or diacritic for palatoalveolar sounds except [J 3]. If we need one in a transcription (see Chapter Seven), we can adapt an existing one.
8, but for the moment we need to see it as an on/off switch for channelling the airflow. At the top of the pharynx the air passages divide into two: one route goes into the mouth, the other into the nose. The velum, which hangs down during normal (non-linguistic) breathing to allow the air to escape through the nose, can be moved up against the back wall of the pharynx near to the start of the nasal cavities (nasopharynx). This closes off the nasal cavities and sends the egressive air into the mouth alone.
Note that for this to happen the nasal passages must be closed off, too, so the velum is closed; otherwise the air would escape through the nose. 5) is not available for these sounds. The larynx can be moved slightly up or down in the throat; if it is moved downwards while the air is trapped in the way that has just been described, then the air pressure in the oral cavity is reduced. Articulation Under these circumstances the release of the supraglottal closure will draw air from outside into the mouth, producing what are referred to as implosives.
Critical Introduction to Phonetics (Continuum Critical Introductions to Linguistics) by Ken Lodge