By Dorothy L. Rosenthal MD, FIAC, Stephen S. Raab MD (auth.)
The Essentials in Cytopathology sequence publishes generously illustrated and straightforward courses with over a hundred complete colour photos that illustrate rules and perform in Cytopathology for pathologists and clinicians.
Cytologic Detection of Urothelial Lesions by means of Dorothy L. Rosenthal, MD and Stephen S. Raab, MD is the second one quantity within the Series. This quantity will current an easy method of facing mobile samples from the urinary tract.
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Additional info for Cytologic Detection of Urothelial Lesions
These cells exhibit nuclear membrane irregularities and nuclear hyperchromasia. These cells also have a large amount of cytoplasm, indicative of their benign nature. 19. Reactive Urothelial Cells—bladder washing: Degenerated slightly atypical urothelial cells are seen. The cells exhibit only mildly increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and many of the cells contain abundant cytoplasm. Note that the nuclear size is smaller than the size of intermediate squamous cells. (600x) 42 2. 20. Polyoma Virus—voided urine: If this is a rare cell in the specimen, then one can presume a viral infection.
No cytologic atypia Benign cellular changes Atypia indeterminate for neoplasia Low grade neoplasia High grade neoplasia Unsatisfactory Needless to say, modiﬁers to neoplastic categories, such as “suspicious for” or “suggestive of” are the prerogatives of the pathologist, and expected/accepted by our clinical colleagues. Repeat cytologic sampling or further diagnostic studies should ensue in these cases. Criteria for unsatisfactory specimens are not deﬁned. Voided urines are usually less cellular than bladder washings, and will vary depending upon the processing method routinely utilized.
2. Benign Urothelial Cells—catheterized urine: Degeneration may be seen in catheterized urine specimens. In this case, degenerated nuclei are admixed with smaller, hyperchromatic benign urothelial cells. 3. Benign Urothelial Cells—catheterized urine: A cluster of benign urothelial cells is admixed with a few squamous cells. The urothelial cells exhibit a moderately increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio although the nuclei are relatively uniform to slightly irregular in contour. The cells contain a variable chromatin pattern and the cytoplasm is homogeneous (absence of vacuoles).
Cytologic Detection of Urothelial Lesions by Dorothy L. Rosenthal MD, FIAC, Stephen S. Raab MD (auth.)